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also these measures of ormuz increase vpon those of balsara and
babylon 25 and two third parts per 100: for bringing 100 pikes of any
measurable wares from balsara or babylon, there is found in ormuz 125 codes
and two third parts.
the other measure is called a vare, which was sent from the king of
portugall to the india, by which they sell things of small value, which
measure is of 5 palmes or spans, and is one code and two third parts, so
that buying 100 codes of any measurable wares, and returning to measure it
by the sayd vare, there are found but 60 vares, contrarywise 100 vares make
166 codes and two third parts.
note that al such ships as lade horses in ormuz for goa or any other place
of india, lading 10 horses or vpwards, in what places soeuer the said
horses be taken a shore in the india, the marchandize which is to be
discharged out of that ship wherein the said horses come, are bound to pay
no custome at all, but if they lade one horse lesse then ten, then the
goods are bound to pay the whole custome. and this law was made by don
emanuel king of portugall, but it is to be diligently foreseene, whither
all those horses laden be bound to pay the king his custome: for many times
by the king of portugall his commandement, there is fauour shewed to the
king of cochin his brother in armes, so that his horses that come in the
same ship, are not to answere custome. as for example: if there were 4
horses laden in one ship, all which were to pay custome to the king, and
one other of the king of cochins which were not to pay any custome, the
same causeth all the marchandize of that ship to be subiect to pay custome,
per aduise. but if they lade ten horses vpon purpose to pay the king his
custome in goa, and in the voyage any of them should die in that case, if
they bring the taile of the dead horse to the custome in goa, then the
marchandize is free from all custome, because they were laden in ormuz to
pay custome in goa. moreouer, if the horses should die before the midst of
the voyage, they pay no custome at all, and if they die in the midst of the
voyage, then they pay halfe custome, but if any horse die after the mid
voiage, they pay custome no lesse than if they arriue safe.
notwithstanding, the marchandize (whether the said horses die before or in
the mid voyage or after the mid voiage) are free from all custome.
the custome of ormuz is eleuen in the 100, to say, 10 for the king, and 1
for the arming of the foists: but for small wares as glasses, and looking
glasses of all sorts, and such like, made for apparell, pay no custome. but
cloth of wooll, karsies, mockaires, chamlets, and all sortes of silke,
saffron, and such like, pay custome, being esteemed reasonably.
there is also another custome, which they call caida, which is, that one
bringing his goods into ormuz, with purpose to send the same further into
india, the same are bound to pay 3 by the 100, but none other are bound to
pay this custome, except the armenians, moores, and iewes: for the
portugals and venetians pay nothing thereof.
note that in ormuz they abate tare of all sorts of commodities, by an order
obserued of custome.
the fraight from ormuz to chaul, goa, and cochin, is as followeth:
mokaires, larines 6 per table of 60 pikes. aquariosa 8 larines by ordinarie
chist, raisins 10 by chist, which is a quintall of roues 128. ruuia of
chalangi larines 10 per quintall, glasses larines 8 per chist, of 4 foote
and a halfe, glasses in great chists 14 and 15 larines by chist. small
wares larines 12 by chist of fiue foot. tamari for maschat sadines 2 and a
half, and 3 by the fardle. tamarie for diu and chaul 4 sadines, and 4 and a
halfe by bale. other drugs and things which come from persia pay according
to the greatnesse of the bales.
the fraight mentioned, they pay as appeareth, when they ship the sayd goods
in ships where horses goe: otherwise not hauing horses, they pay somewhat
lesse, because of the custom which they are to pay.
the vse of the india ships is, that the patrones thereof are not at any
charge neither with any passenger, not yet with any mariner in the ship,
but that euery one at the beginning of the voyage doe furnish to maintaine
his owne table (if he will eate) and for drinke they haue a great iarre of
water, which is garded with great custodie.
the weight, measure, and mony currant in goa.
the quintall of goa is 5 manas, and 8 larines, and the mana is 24 rotilos,
so that the quintall of goa is 128 rot. and euery rot. is 16 ounces, which
is of venice weight 1 li. and a halfe, so that the quintall of goa is 192
li. sotile venice, which is 26 rotiloes 8 ounces aleppine, and of london
weight 132 li. english, as the weight of ormuz.
all the marchandize, spices and drugs, are sold by this quintal, except
some drugs, as lignum de china, galanga, and others, whereof they bargaine
at so much per candill, aduertising that there be two sorts of candill, one
of 16 manas, the other of 20 manas, that of 16 manas commeth to be iust 3
quintals, and that of 26 manas, 3 quintals, 3 roues. note that 4 roues make
a quintall, and the roue is 32 rotiloes, as in ormuz.
there is also another weight which they call marco, which is eight ounces
or halfe a rotilo of goa, and 9 ounces of venice sotile: with this they
weigh amber, corall, muske, ambracan, ciuet, and other fine wares.
there is also another sort of weight called mangiallino, which is 5 graines
of venice weight and therewith they weigh diamants and other iewels.
[sidenote: muske of tartarie by the way of china.] note that in goa they
vse not to abate any tare of any goods, except of sacks or wraps, and
therefore it requireth great aduisement in buying of the goods, especially
in the muske of tartaria which commeth by way of china in bladders, and so
weigh it without any tare rebating.
the measure of goa is called a tode, which encreaseth vpon the measure of
babylon and balsara after the rate of 17 and one eight part by the 100, so
that bringing 100 pikes of any measurable ware from thence to goa, it is
found 117 pikes 7 eight parts, and bringing 100 codes from ormuz to goa,
there is found but 93 codes and one fourth part.
there is also the vare in goa, which is iust as the vare of ormuz, and
therewith they measure onely things that are of small value.
for the mony of goa, there is a kind of mony made of lead and tin mingled,
being thicke and round, and stamped on the one side with a spheare or globe
of the world, and on the other side two arrowes and 5 rounds: and this kind
of mony is called basaruchi, and 15 of these make a vinton of naughty mony,
and 5 vintons make a tanga, and 4 vintenas make a tanga of base money: so
that the tanga of base mony is 60 basaruchies, and the tanga of good mony
75. basaruchies, and 5 tangas make a seraphine of gold, which in
merchandize is worth 5 tangas good money: but if one would change them into
basaruchies, he may haue 5 tangas, and 16 basaruchies, which ouerplus they
cal cerafagio, and when they bargain of the pardaw of gold, each pardaw is
ment to be 6 tangas good mony, but in merchandise they vse not to demaund
pardawes of gold in goa, except it be for iewels and horses, for all the
rest they take of seraphines of siluer, per aduiso.
the roials of plate, i say, the roial of 8 are worth per custome and
commandement of the king of portugall 400 reies, and euery rey is one
basaruchie and one fourth part, which maketh tangas 6, and 53 basaruchies
as their iust value, but for that the said roials are excellent siluer and
currant in diuers places of the india, and chiefly in malacca, when the
ships are to depart at their due times (called monsons) euery one to haue
the said roials pay more then they are worth, and the ouerplus, as is
abouesaid they call serafagio. and first they giue the iust value of the
100 roials of 8, at 5 tangas 50 basaruchies a piece, which done, they giue
seraphins 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, vntill 22 by the 100, according as
they are in request.
the ducket of gold is worth 9 tangas and a halfe good money, and yet not
stable in price, for that when the ships depart from goa to cochin, they
pay them at 9 tangas and 3 fourth partes, and 10 tangas, and that is the
most that they are woorth.
the larines are woorth by iust value basaruchies 93 and 3 fourth parts, and
4 larines make a seraphine of siluer, which is 5 tangas of good money, and
these also haue serafagion of 6, 7, 8, 10, vntill 16, by the hundred, for
when the ships depart for the north, to say, for chaul, diu, cambaia, or
bassaim, all cary of the same, because it is money more currant then any
there is also a sort of seraphins of gold of the stampe of ormuz, whereof
there are but fewe in goa, but being there, they are woorth fiue larines
and somewhat more, according as they are in request.
there is also another litle sort of mony, round, hauing on the one side a
crosse, and on the other side a crowne, which is woorth one halfe a tanga
of good money, and another of the same stampe lesse than that which they
call imitiuo de buona moneda, which is worth 18 basaruches 3 fourth parts a
note that if a man bargaine in marchandize, it behooueth to demaund tangas
of good money: for by nominating tangas onely, is vnderstood to be base
money of 60 basaruches, which wanteth of the good money vt supra.
the custome of goa is 8 in the 100 inwards, and as much outward, and the
goods are esteemed iustly rather to the marchants aduantage then the kings.
the custome they pay in this order. comming with a ship from ormuz to goa
without horses, they pay 8 in the 100 whether they sell part or all, but if
they would carie of the sayd marchandise to any other place, they pay none
other custome, except others buy it and carie it foorth of the countrey,
and then they pay it 8 in the 100. and if one hauing paied the custome
should sell to another with composition to passe it forth as for his proper
accounts to saue the custome, this may not be, because the seller is put to
his oth, whether he send the goods for his owne account, or for the account
of any others that haue bought the same, and being found to the contrary
they pay custome as abouesaid