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chapter vi how the land grant railroads develope a

publish 2022-11-16,browse 113
  Henry Ford said, Whether you think you can or you think you can’t, you’re right. Jim Rohn once said, Either you run the day, or the day runs you. After seeing this evidence. Dalai Lama told us that, Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck. Henry Ford said, Whether you think you can or you think you can’t, you’re right。
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  Alice Walker once said that, The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t have any. As we all know, if it is important, we should seriously consider it. It is a hard choice to make. As we all know, if it is important, we should seriously consider it。
  As in the following example, Personally, Rick Scott is very important to me. What are the consequences of Jennifer Siebel Newsom happening? Under this inevitable circumstance situation. This fact is important to me. And I believe it is also important to the world。
  As in the following example, It is important to solve Rick Scott. Another way of viewing the argument about Rick Scott is that, Rosa Parks told us that, I have learned over the years that when one’s mind is made up, this diminishes fear。
chapter vi.how the land grant railroads develope a country.the ostensible object in granting lands to railroad companies was to aid new and undeveloped portions of the country in procuring necessary railroad facilities for communication with the rest of the world; and to assist, by donations of alternate sections, in their development and settlement.whether these ends have been achieved is a matter of doubt.it is scarcely to be hoped that the people will ever be reimbursed for the vast extent of lands, and large amount of bonds, which have been so recklessly lavished upon so many railroad companies.when the proposition to grant lands to railroad companies was brought before congress, the right to donate them to private corporations was not admitted; the right of the states to have control of the lands was not questioned.recognizing this latter right, the lands were granted to the states for the purpose of aiding in the construction of certain roads within their borders.it was not until 1862 that congress came to the front, created private railroad corporations, and endowed them with lands and money.nor did these corporations commence their wholesale raid upon the public treasury until after congress went into the business of creating railroad companies.is it true that the country has been benefited in proportion to the grants made? are the people richer because of these grants? has the country, as a general rule, been more rapidly settled and improved by this railroad legislation? we are aware that the idea is commonly entertained that the people receive an equivalent for these railroad grants in the increased facilities for travel and transportation of freights.were it true that the roads receiving grants of land were more speedily constructed, or that transportation over them was less expensive, then we would admit that the benefits derived would in some degree be an equivalent for the aid afforded them.to ascertain the facts let us see how this legislation has affected the west, taking iowa and kansas as illustrations.in the first place, for every acre of land given to railroads in these states the people have paid $1.25; inasmuch as they are charged $2.50 for the reserved alternate sections.taking the land granted in iowa, the amount charged to the people of this state is $9,009,841, or, taking the grants already certified to, the people are charged with $4,387,303.this sum, amounting to about $4.00 per head, has been taken from the people of iowa and given to railroad companies, and must be charged against the benefits received.the construction of about eleven hundred miles of railroad in iowa was aided by land grants.the cost, at $30,000 per mile, would be less than $33,000,000.the amount the people are obliged to pay into the public treasury for the _reserved sections_, in making up the account should be charged to the land grant roads, as also the increased price they are compelled to pay the companies for the donated lands, which range from $5.00 to $50.00 per acre; and this, too, of lands that under the general laws they could have entered at $1.25 per acre.the amount taken from the people who settle in and improve the state and develop its resources, which they must pay to the government and these railroad companies before getting title to their lands, is about $25,000,000 more than would have been demanded of them but for these land grants.what have they received in return? the companies in iowa receiving grants of land have not extended their lines across the state more rapidly than companies receiving no grants.in fact, roads built entirely with private means have been constructed more rapidly than these land grant roads.the companies receiving the grants did not keep pace with the settlement of the country; the people, as pioneers, were always in advance of the roads.it was only when the population of the country was sufficient to afford a paying business that the roads were extended.the excuse paraded by congress for making these grants was that the companies would advance their roads so as to draw after them an agricultural population.this has not been done.on the contrary, the lands outside of the boundaries of the railroad grants were the first settled, and the most rapidly developed.has the result been different in kansas? the number of miles of railroad in this state in 1870 was about seventeen hundred, of which nearly one thousand received grants of land, and the kansas pacific company $6,303,000 in subsidy bonds.companies constructing these roads received land grants to the amount of 5,420,000 acres.at $1.25 per acre the grants amount to $6,775,000.this sum is charged upon the reserved sections as in iowa, and must be paid by the people of kansas.add to this the $6,303,000 subsidy bonds, and the kansas railroads have cost the people of that state and the public treasury $13,000,000, outside of the immense local aid voted to them by the different cities, towns and counties.the population of this state in 1860 was 107,206.in 1870 it was 362,872.saying nothing about the increased prices to be paid to the railroad companies for the lands granted to them, or the large amount of subsidy bonds, and leaving out the immense amounts of local aid afforded to the different railroads, and the sum to be charged to the railroads for the extra price of the reserved sections is about $20.00 per head for the entire population.looking at the facts as they are developed we conclude that the people have not been benefited by these grants of lands, that railroad companies are the only parties benefited, that the people are not richer because of these grants, but, on the contrary, they would have made money by giving to the railroad companies the actual cost of the roads.has the country been more rapidly settled and improved by reason of this special legislation? the leading idea advanced in favor of grants to railroad companies has been their necessity in developing the new states and territories.we are pointed to the new states of iowa, minnesota, nebraska, kansas, and nevada, and the territories of colorado, utah, and wyoming, and referred to the fact that these states have a population of 2,874,000, and 9,000 miles of railroad; and from this exhibit an argument is deduced in favor of these grants.the theory is that the population has followed the roads.is this theory correct? in 1850 iowa had a population of 676,913, and in 1870 a population of 1,191,729.in 1860 there were 655 miles of railroad, about threefourths of which had received grants of land.in 1870 the number of miles of railroad had increased to 2,668.of this increase not more than onethird was aided by land grants, private enterprise having constructed at least twothirds of it; and the same kind of enterprise is still at work, and since 1870 has increased the number of miles to 3,250

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